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IDEALS    OF   LIFE                                IOI

commonly understood. First, religion as an embodiment
of priestcraft, with its dogmas, its apostolic succession, its
appeal to miracles, its patent cures for sins and selling of
pardons, its salvation "made easy" and its good solid heaven
and hell. This religion, so eminently saleable, is common to
all peoples, the Chinese included, and may be regarded as
satisfying man's needs in certain stages of human culture.
Because there is need for these things among the people,
Taoism and Buddhism have furnished them to the Chinese,
since Confucianism refused to furnish them.

Secondly, there is religion as a sanction for moral conduct:
here the Chinese and the Christian points of view differ
widely. Humanist ethics is a man-centred, not a God-centred
ethics. To the West, it seems hardly imaginable that the
relationship between man and man (which is morality) could
be maintained without reference to a Supreme Being, while
to the Chinese it is equally amazing that men should not, or
could not, behave toward one another as decent beings without
thinking of their indirect relationship through a third party.
It should seem possible to conceive that man should try to do
good, simply because it is the human, decent thing to do. I
have wondered what the development of European ethics
would have been if it had not been overshadowed by Pauline
theology. It would have developed, I think, by sheer necessity
along the lines of Marcus Aurelius's meditations. Pauline
theology has brought in the Hebrew notion of sin, which has
clouded the entire field of Christian ethics, and from which
there seems no escape except by religion, such as is provided
in the Doctrine of Redemption. As it is, a European ethics
divorced from religion seems such a strange notion that it has
seldom occurred to people's minds.

And thirdly, there is religion as an inspiration and living
emotion, a feeling for the grim grandeur and mystery of the
universe and a quest for security in life, satisfying man's
deepest spiritual instincts. There are moments in our lives,
perhaps during the loss of our dear ones or during the period
of convalescence from a great illness, or perhaps on a chilly
autumn morning as we look at the falling leaves and a sense
of death and futility overcomes us, when we live more than the